11 Health and Nutrition Benefits of Cocoa Powder
Cacao is thought to have first been used by the Maya civilization of Central America.
It was introduced to Europe by Spanish conquerors in the 16th century and quickly became popular as a health-promoting medicine.
Cacao powder is made by crushing cocoa beans and removing the fat or cocoa butter.
Today, cacao is most famous for its role in chocolate production. However, modern research has revealed that it does indeed contain important compounds that can benefit your health.
Here are 11 health and nutrition benefits of cocoa powder.
Polyphenols are naturally occurring antioxidants found in foods like fruits, vegetables, tea, chocolate and wine
They have been linked to numerous health benefits, including reduced inflammation, better blood flow, lower blood pressure and lower cholesterol and blood sugar levels
Cocoa is one of the richest sources of polyphenols. It’s especially abundant in flavanols, which have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
However, processing and heating cocoa can cause it to lose its beneficial properties. It’s also often treated with alkaline to reduce bitterness, which results in a 60% decrease in flavanol content
So while cocoa is a great source of polyphenols, not all products containing cocoa will provide the same benefits.
Cocoa, both in its powdered form and in the form of dark chocolate, may be able to help lower blood pressure
This effect was first noted in the cocoa-drinking island people of Central America, who had much lower blood pressure than their non-cocoa-drinking mainland relatives
The flavanols in cocoa are thought to increase nitric oxide levels in the blood, which can enhance the function of your blood vessels and reduce blood pressure
One review analyzed 35 experiments that provided patients with 0.05–3.7 ounces (1.4–105 grams) of cocoa products, or roughly 30–1,218 mg of flavanols. It found that cocoa produced a small but significant reduction of 2 mmHg in blood pressure.
Additionally, the effect was greater in people who already had high blood pressure than those without it and in older people compared to younger people
However, it’s important to remember that processing significantly reduces the number of flavanols, so the effects most likely will not be seen from the average chocolate bar.
In addition to lowering blood pressure, it appears that cocoa has other properties that may reduce your risk of heart attack and stroke
Flavanol-rich cocoa improves the level of nitric oxide in your blood, which relaxes and dilates your arteries and blood vessels and improves blood flow
What’s more, cocoa has been found to reduce “bad” LDL cholesterol, have a blood thinning effect similar to aspirin, improve blood sugars and reduce inflammation
These properties have been linked to a lower risk of heart attack, heart failure and stroke.
A review of nine studies in 157,809 people found that higher chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of heart disease, stroke and death
Two Swedish studies found that chocolate intake is linked to a lower rate of heart failure at doses of up to one serving of 0.7–1.1 ounces (19–30 grams) of chocolate per day, but the effect was not seen when consuming higher amounts
These results suggest that frequent consumption of small amounts of cocoa-rich chocolate may have protective measures for your heart
Several studies have found that polyphenols, such as those in cocoa, may reduce your risk of neurodegenerative diseases by improving brain function and blood flow.
Flavanols can cross the blood-brain barrier and are involved in the biochemical pathways that produce neurons and important molecules for the function of your brain.
Additionally, flavanols influence the production of nitric oxide, which relaxes the muscles of your blood vessels, improving blood flow and blood supply to your brain
A two-week study in 34 older adults given high-flavanol cocoa found blood flow to the brain increased by 8% after one week and 10% after two weeks
Further studies suggest that daily intake of cocoa flavanols can improve mental performance in people with and without mental impairments
These studies indicate a positive role of cocoa on brain health and possible positive effects on neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. However, more research is needed
In addition to cocoa’s positive impact on age-related mental degeneration, its effect on the brain may also improve mood and symptoms of depression
The positive effects on mood may be due to cocoa’s flavanols, the conversion of trytophan to the natural mood stabilizer serotonin, its caffeine content or simply the sensory pleasure of eating chocolate
One study on chocolate consumption and stress levels in pregnant women found that more frequent intake of chocolate was associated with reduced stress and improved mood in babies
Furthermore, another study discovered that drinking high-polyphenol cocoa improved calmness and contentment
Additionally, a study in senior men showed that eating chocolate was linked to improved overall health and better psychological well-being.
While the results of these early studies are promising, more research on the effect of cocoa on mood and depression is needed before more definite conclusions can be drawn.
Though overconsumption of chocolate is certainly not good for blood sugar control, cocoa does, in fact, have some anti-diabetic effects.
Test-tube studies indicate that cocoa flavanols can slow down carbohydrate digestion and absorption in the gut, improve insulin secretion, reduce inflammation and stimulate the uptake of sugar out of the blood into the muscle
Some studies have shown that a higher intake of flavanols, including those from cocoa, can result in a lower risk of type 2 diabetes
Additionally, a review of human studies showed that eating flavanol-rich dark chocolate or cocoa can help control blood sugar and reduce inflammation in diabetic and nondiabetic people
Despite these promising results, there are inconsistencies in the research with some studies finding only a limited effect, slightly worse control of diabetes or no effect at all
Nevertheless, these results combined with the more concrete positive effects on heart health indicate cocoa polyphenols may have a positive impact on both preventing and controlling diabetes, though more research is required.
Flavanols in fruits, vegetables and other foods have attracted a great deal of interest due to their cancer protective properties low toxicity and few adverse side effects.
Cocoa has the highest concentration of flavanols out of all foods per weight and can significantly contribute to their amount in your diet
Test-tube studies on components of cocoa have found that they have antioxidant effects, protect cells against damage from reactive molecules, fight inflammation, inhibit cell growth, induce cancer cell death and help prevent the spread of cancer cells
Animal studies using a cocoa-rich diet or cocoa extracts have seen positive results in reducing breast, pancreatic, prostate, liver and colon cancer, as well as leukemia
Studies in humans have shown that flavanol-rich diets are associated with a decrease in cancer risk. However, the evidence for cocoa specifically is conflicting, as some trials have found no benefit and some have even noticed an increased risk
Small human studies on cocoa and cancer suggest that it can be a powerful antioxidant and may play a role in cancer prevention. However, much more research is needed
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes obstruction and inflammation of the airways and can be life-threatening
It’s thought that cocoa may be beneficial for people with asthma, as it contains anti-asthmatic compounds, such as theobromine and theophylline.
Theobromine is similar to caffiene and may help with persistent coughing. Cocoa powder contains about 1.9 grams of this compound per 100 grams or 3.75 ounces
of development, it’s too early to say how cocoa may be used in treating asthma.
Several studies have explored the protective effects of cocoa against dental cavities and gum disease.
Cocoa contains many compounds that have antibacterial, anti-enzymatic and immune-stimulating properties that may contribute to its oral health effects.
In one study, rats infected with oral bacteria that were given cocoa extract had a significant reduction in dental cavities, compared to those given only water
However, there are no significant human studies, and the majority of cocoa products consumed by humans also have sugar As a result, new products will need to be developed to experience the oral health benefits of cocoa.
Despite popular opinion, cocoa in chocolate is not a cause of pimples In fact, cocoa polyphenols have been found to provide significant benefits for your skin
Long-term ingestion of cocoa has been shown to contribute to sun protection, skin blood circulation and improve the surface texture and hydration of your skin
The exact amount of cocoa you should include in your diet to achieve health benefits is not clear.
The European Food Safety Authority recommends 0.1 ounces (2.5 grams) of high-flavanol cocoa powder or 0.4 ounces (10 grams) of high-flavanol dark chocolate containing at least 200 mg of flavanols per day to achieve heart health benefits
However, this number has been deemed too low by other researchers, who claim higher amounts of flavanols are required to see benefits
Overall, it’s important to select cocoa sources that have a high flavanol content — the less processed, the better.
Fun ways to add cocoa to your diet include:
- Eat dark chocolate: Make sure it’s good quality and contains at least 70% cocoa.
- Hot/cold cocoa: Mix cocoa with your favorite dairy or mylk for a chocolate milkshake.
- Smoothies: Cocoa can be added to your favorite healthy smoothie recipe to give it a richer, chocolatey taste.
- Puddings: You can add raw cocoa powder (not Dutch) to homemade puddings like chia breakfast puddings or rice pudding.
- Vegan chocolate mousse: Process avacado cocoa, almond milk and a sweetener like dates for a thick vegan chocolate mousse.
- Sprinkle over fruit: Cocoa is particularly nice sprinkled over bananas or strawberries.
- Granola bars: Add cocoa to your favorite granola bar mixture to bump up the health benefits and enrich the flavor.
Cocoa has captivated the world for thousands of years and is a big part of modern cuisine in the form of chocolate.
Health benefits of cocoa include decreased inflammation, improved heart and brain health, blood sugar and weight control and healthy teeth and skin.
Only eat chocolate containing more than 70% cocoa if you want to maximize health benefits.
Remember that chocolate still contains significant quantities of sugar and fats, so if you’re going to use it, stick to reasonable portion sizes and combine it with a healthy balanced diet.